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Trifolium repens L.
Trifolium occidentale

Life   Plantae   Dicotyledoneae   Fabaceae   Trifolium

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Trifolium repens
© Les Mehrhoff, 2008-2010 · 6
Trifolium repens
Trifolium repens
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Trifolium repens

Trifolium repens
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Trifolium repens
Trifolium repens
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Trifolium repens

Trifolium repens
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Trifolium repens
Trifolium repens
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Trifolium repens

Trifolium repens
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Trifolium repens
Trifolium repens
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Trifolium repens

Trifolium repens
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Trifolium repens
Trifolium repens
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Trifolium repens

Trifolium repens, ---.
© Copyright source/photographer · 5
Trifolium repens, ---.
Trifolium repens, ---.
© Copyright source/photographer · 5
Trifolium repens, ---.

Trifolium repens
© Les Mehrhoff, 2008-2010 · 4
Trifolium repens
Trifolium repens, inflorescence - whole - unspecified
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Trifolium repens, inflorescence - whole - unspecified

Associates · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Andrenidae  Andrena carlini @ UCMS_ENT (17)

Andrena vicina @ MLSB__N16- (1); UCMS_ENT (1)

Andrena wilkella @ MLSB__N16- (7); AMNH_BEE (1); CUIC_ENT (12); UCMS_ENT (13)

Calliopsis andreniformis @ MLSB__N16- (2)

Calliopsis anthidia @ BBSL (2)
Anthocoridae  Orius tristicolor @ AMNH_IZC (1)
Aphididae  Aphis ( @ NCSU_ENT (4)

Nearctaphis bakeri @ CSUC_TCN (2)

Therioaphis ( @ CSCA_TCN (2)
Apidae  Anthophora terminalis @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Apis mellifera @ PN- (5); MLSB__N16- (17); UCMS_ENT (1)

Bombus affinis @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Bombus appositus @ BBSL (1)

Bombus ardens @ CUIC_ENT (1)

Bombus bimaculatus @ BBSL__BBSLID (1); AMNH_BEE (1); UCMS_ENT (5)

Bombus californicus @ BBSL (1)

Bombus fernaldae @ BBSL (2)

Bombus fervidus @ BBSL__JPS (1); PN- (1); BBSL (1)

Bombus flavifrons @ BBSL (29)

Bombus frigidus @ BBSL (7)

Bombus griseocollis @ BBSL__JPS (1); PN- (2); BBSL (1); MLSB__N16- (5); AMNH_BEE (1); UCMS_ENT (3)

Bombus huntii @ BBSL__JPS (6); AMNH_BEE (1)

Bombus impatiens @ PN- (2); BBSL__BBSLID (1); AMNH_BEE (5); UCMS_ENT (1)

Bombus insularis @ BBSL (6)

Bombus jonellus @ BBSL (9)

Bombus melanopygus @ BBSL (12); AMNH_BEE (8)

Bombus mixtus @ BBSL (8)

Bombus moderatus @ BBSL (1)

Bombus morrisoni @ BBSL (1)

Bombus nevadensis @ BBSL__JPS (2)

Bombus perplexus @ BBSL (2); UCMS_ENT (3)

Bombus rufocinctus @ BBSL__JPS (7); BBSL (6); AMNH_BEE (2)

Bombus sylvicola @ BBSL (1)

Bombus ternarius @ AMNH_BEE (3)

Bombus vagans @ BBSL__BBSLID (1); BBSL (3); AMNH_BEE (1)

Ceratina calcarata @ PN- (1); MLSB__N16- (7); AMNH_BEE (2)

Eucera actuosa @ BBSL (1)

Eucera edwardsii @ BBSL (2)

Melissodes bimaculata @ PN- (1)

Melissodes dagosa @ BBSL (1)

Melissodes rivalis @ BBSL (1)
Cicadellidae  Agallia constricta @ UKYL_TCN (10)

Amblysellus curtisii @ UKYL_TCN (6)

Ceratagallia ( @ NCSU (1)

Draeculacephala @ MEMU_ENT (1)

Empoasca alboneura @ III (1)

Empoasca bifurcata @ III (4)

Empoasca chelata @ III (3)

Empoasca erigeron @ III (5)

Empoasca fabalis @ III (1)

Empoasca sativae @ III (3)

Scaphytopius ( @ MEMU_ENT (2)
Coccinellidae  Coccinella septempunctata @ I_LB (1)

Coleomegilla maculata @ I_LB (1)

Hippodamia convergens @ I_LB (1)
Colletidae  Colletes cognatus @ BBSL (1)

Hylaeus annulatus @ BBSL (1)
Halictidae  Agapostemon femoratus @ BBSL (1)

Agapostemon sericeus @ MLSB__N16- (1)

Agapostemon texanus @ PN- (1); UCMS_ENT (1)

Agapostemon virescens @ MLSB__N16- (1); UCMS_ENT (2)

Halictus farinosus @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Halictus rubicundus @ PN- (1); UCMS_ENT (2)

Lasioglossum pilosum @ UCMS_ENT (2)

Lasioglossum zephyrum @ AMNH_BEE (1)
Megachilidae  Anthidiellum notatum @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Anthidium oblongatum @ MLSB__N16- (1); AMNH_BEE (1)

Anthidium punctatum @ BBSL (1)

Anthidium tenuiflorae @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Heriades carinata @ MLSB__N16- (1)

Hoplitis albifrons @ BBSL (3)

Hoplitis pilosifrons @ CUIC_ENT (1)

Hoplitis producta @ AMNH_BEE (1); CUIC_ENT (4)

Hoplitis robusta @ DART_ENT (1)

Hoplitis truncata @ CUIC_ENT (1)

Megachile ainu @ BBSL (1)

Megachile frigida @ MLSB__N16- (2)

Megachile latimanus @ UCMS_ENT (1)

Megachile melanophaea @ BBSL (1)

Megachile mendica @ BBSL (1)

Megachile perihirta @ BBSL (1)

Megachile rotundata @ MLSB__N16- (1)

Osmia albolateralis @ BBSL__BBSLID (1); DART_ENT (1); RMBL_ENT (3)

Osmia atrocyanea @ BBSL (1)

Osmia caerulescens @ MLSB__N16- (1)

Osmia clarescens @ BBSL (1)

Osmia densa @ BBSL__BBSLID (33)

Osmia exigua @ BBSL (1)

Osmia grindeliae @ RMBL_ENT (1)

Osmia juxta @ BBSL__BBSLID (3); BBSL (1)

Osmia longula @ DART_ENT (1)

Osmia nanula @ DART_ENT (1); RMBL_ENT (2)

Osmia nemoris @ BBSL (1); AMNH_BEE (1)

Osmia nifoata @ BBSL__BBSLID (1)

Osmia nigrifrons @ DART_ENT (3)

Osmia obliqua @ BBSL (1)

Osmia odontogaster @ BBSL (4)

Osmia pentstemonis @ BBSL__BBSLID (18); BBSL (1); DART_ENT (2)

Osmia physariae @ BBSL (2)

Osmia proxima @ AMNH_BEE (1); RMBL_ENT (2)

Osmia pumila @ MLSB__N16- (3); UCMS_ENT (1)

Osmia pusilla @ BBSL (6)

Osmia simillima @ BBSL__BBSLID (3); AMNH_BEE (1)

Osmia tristella @ BBSL (1)

Osmia unca @ BBSL (1)

Osmia virga @ AMNH_BEE (1)
Membracidae  Spissistilus festinus @ NCSU (1)
Miridae  Atractotomus balli @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Labopidea @ AMNH_PBI (8)

Lygus lineolaris @ MEMU_ENT (16)

Microtechnites bractatus @ AMNH_PBI (2)

Polymerus basalis @ MEMU_ENT (7)
Reduviidae  Sinea @ AMNH_PBI (5)
Scarabaeidae  Popillia japonica @ PN- (1)
_  Anthomyiidae @ PN- (3)

Arachnida @ PN- (2)

Brachonidae @ PN- (1)

Calliphoridae @ PN- (1)

Chamaemyiidae? @ PN- (1)

Cicadellidae @ PN- (3)

Conopidae @ PN- (1)

Curculionidae @ PN- (1)

Drosophilidae @ PN- (2)

Hylaues pictipes @ MLSB__N16- (1)

Hymenoptera @ PN- (1)

Miridae @ PN- (1)

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Following modified from Flora of Taiwan, National Taiwan University
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&pull 20q v4.662 20091102: Error 301 Moved Permanently http://tai2.ntu.edu.tw/udth/bin/fot1.exe/browse?bid=3&page=377

Following modified from Delaware Wildflowers
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Delaware Wildflowers  •  Scientific names

Trifolium repens L. White Clover
Fabaceae — Bean family
Trifolium repens
Prices Corner
July 2002

More information on this plant, from other sources.

Copyright David G. Smith

Delaware Wildflowers main page

Following modified from MissouriPlants.com
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Trifolium repens L. - Creeping Clover

Trifolium repens plant

Family - Fabaceae

Stems - Herbaceous, typically glabrous, creeping, rooting at nodes.

Leaves - Alternate, trifoliolate, petiolate. Petioles to +15cm long, glabrous, with a shallow adaxial groove. Stipules sheathing, scarious, free portion 5-6mm long. Leaflets 3, broadly ovate to orbicular with striate nerves (veins), denticulate in basal 1/2 on margins, glabrous, to 2cm in diameter, with inverted "V"-shaped splotch adaxially, shiny green abaxially, dull green adaxially. Petiolules very short, pilose, to 1mm long.

Trifolium repens leaf

Inflorescence - Terminal globose cluster of +/-60 flowers. Peduncle to +/-20cm tall, carinate, glabrous or with a few sparse hairs. Pedicels +/-4mm long, glabrous or with a few spare hairs. Each pedicel subtended by a single small scarious bract. Bracts 1-2mm long, .5mm broad, sometimes with a green midvein. Pedicels erect in flower, recurved in fruit.

Flowers - Corolla whitish, fading to pink or tan, papilionaceous, glabrous. Standard 8-9mm long, 4mm broad. Keels apically fused. Wings adnate to keels near the apex. Wings and keels fused to stamen tube. Stamens diadelphous, glabrous. Anthers yellow, .2-.3mm long. Ovary green, glabrous, 2.1mm long in flower. Style glabrous, 3mm long, upcurved, translucent. Stigma capitate. Calyx weakly bilabiate. The upper lip 2-lobed. Lobes attenuate, 2mm long. Lower lip 3-lobed. Lobes to 1.4mm long, attenuate. Calyx tube 2.5mm long, 1.5mm in diameter, glabrous internally and externally, pale green with darker green areas. Tube sometimes reddish at the base of the lobes. Fruit to 5mm long, linear, terete, 3-4 seeded.

Trifolium repens flowers Typical flowers.

Trifolium repens flowers Pinkish flowers.

Flowering - May - November.

Habitat - Waste ground, pastures, open fields, roadsides, railroads.

Origin - Native to Eurasia.

Other info. - One of the most common "weeds" in Missouri, this plant can form large mats up to 2m in diameter. It is not uncommon to find entire fields covered with this species and other introduced species such as Coronilla varia and T. pratense .
The plant pictured above is T. repens f. repens . There are other forms in cultivation (mostly with larger flowers) but this form is the common wild plant.

Photographs taken in the Ozark Scenic Riverways, Shannon County, MO., 6-16-05, and in Auburn, AL., 4-17-05.


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Following modified from Taiwan Biodiversity National Information Network
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Kingdom Plantae  
 Phylum Magnoliophyta  
 Class Magnoliopsida  
 Order Fabales  
 Family Fabaceae  
 Genus Trifolium  
  Trifolium repens    L., 1753 
Provider: Ching-I Peng 
hierarchy tree    download xml    download txt    Chinese Page    
Citation: Flora of Taiwan 2nd ed. 3: 377, 1993; 台灣入侵及外來種圖鑑, 林業試驗所 2005
Name Code: 203233
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http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=TRRE3 ---> https://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=TRRE3
https://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=TRRE3 ---> http://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=TRRE3
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You are here: Home / Plant Profile

Trifolium repens L.
white clover

Image of Trifolium repens

General Information
Symbol: TRRE3
Group: Dicot
Family: Fabaceae
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit : Forb/herb
Native Status : AK   I
GL   I
HI   I
L48   I
Other Common Names: Dutch clover
ladino clover
white Dutch clover
Fact Sheet (pdf) (doc) Plant Guide (pdf) (doc)
Data Source and Documentation
About our new maps
Plants-NRCS Logos
green round image for nativity Native blue round image for introduced Introduced ocre round image for introduced and nativity Both white round image for no status Absent/Unreported
image for native, but no county data Native, No County Data image for introduced, but no county data Introduced, No County Data both introduced and native, but no county data Both, No County Data
Native Status:
lower 48 status L48    Alaska status AK    Hawaii status HI    Puerto Rico status PR    Virgin Islands status VI    Navassa Island NAV    Canada status CAN    Greenland status GL    Saint Pierre and Michelon status SPM    North America NA   


click on a thumbnail to view an image, or see all the Trifolium thumbnails at the Plants Gallery

Steve Hurst. Provided by ARS Systematic Botany and Mycology Laboratory . United Kingdom, Scotland. Usage Requirements .

Patrick J. Alexander. Usage Requirements .

Patrick J. Alexander. Usage Requirements .

©Elaine Haug. Provided by Smithsonian Institution, Department of Botany . United States, VA, Prince William Co., Dale City. Usage Requirements .

©Al Schneider. Southwest Colorado Wildflowers . United States, CO, NM, AZ, UT, Four Corners vicinity, within 150 miles of the corners. Usage Requirements .

Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 vols. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. Vol. 2: 358. Provided by Kentucky Native Plant Society . Scanned by Omnitek Inc . Usage Requirements .



Symbol Scientific Name
TRREA Trifolium repens L. var. atropurpureum hort.


Click on a scientific name below to expand it in the PLANTS Classification Report.
Rank Scientific Name and Common Name
Kingdom Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Subclass Rosidae
Order Fabales
Family Fabaceae ⁄ Leguminosae – Pea family
Genus Trifolium L. – clover
Species Trifolium repens L. – white clover

Subordinate Taxa

The Plants Database includes the following 2 subspecies of Trifolium repens . Click below on a thumbnail map or name for subspecies profiles. Plant is native (blue) Native Plant is introduced Introduced Plant is introduced Native and Introduced Related taxa legend Distribution of <i>
Trifolium repens</i>
L. var. <i>
(Steud. & Hochst.) Asch. & Graebn.
Trifolium repens var. biasolettii
Distribution of <i>
Trifolium repens</i>
L. var. <i>
Lagr.-Foss. [excluded]
Trifolium repens var. giganteum

Legal Status

U.S. Weed Information
Trifolium repens Dutch clover ladino clover white clover This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. Click on an acronym to view each weed list, or click here for a composite list of Weeds of the U.S.
N'EAST Uva, R.H., J.C. Neal,and J.M. DiTomaso. 1997. Weeds of the Northeast . Cornell University Press. Ithaca, New York.
NE&GP Stubbendieck, J., G.Y. Friisoe,and M.R. Bolick. 1994. Weeds of Nebraska and the Great Plains . Nebraska Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry. Lincoln, Nebraska.

Wetland Status

Interpreting Wetland Status

Top Level Regions
Hawaii FACU
North America
Alaska FACU
Arid West FACU
Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain FACU
Eastern Mountains and Piedmont FACU
Great Plains FACU
Midwest FACU
Northcentral & Northeast FACU
Western Mountains, Valleys, and Coast FAC

Related Links

More Accounts and Images
ARS Germplasm Resources Information Network (TRRE3)
CalPhotos (TRRE3)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (TRRE3)
Jepson Interchange (University of California - Berkeley) (TRRE3)
Kemper Center for Home Gardening (TRRE3)
Native American Ethnobotany (University of Michigan - Dearborn) (TRRE3)
USDA Forest Service Fire Effects Information System (TRRE3)
USF Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants (TRRE3)
University of Tennessee Herbarium (Distribution) (TRRE3)
University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point Freckmann Herbarium (TRRE3)
Related Websites
BioImages (TRRE3)
CA-Jepson Flora Project (TRRE3)
Cornell University cover crops page for white clover (TRRE3)
Cover crops database at the UC Davis Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education Program (SAREP) (TRRE3)
HI-Plants of Hawaii (HEAR) (TRRE3)
International Legume Data Information System (TRRE3)
MA-University of Massachusetts (TRRE3)
Managing Cover Crops Profitably (Sustainable Agriculture Network) (TRRE3)
NY-Cornell University: Poisonous Plant Databases (images) (TRRE3)
OH-Ohio State University Seed Biology (TRRE3)
UC Davis, IPM: abstract & images (TRRE3)
Virginia: abstract & image (TRRE3)
WA-Burke Museum of Natural History and Culture (U. of Washington) (TRRE3)



Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds
Everitt Minor Minor
Gee Minor
Yarrow Low Low Low


Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds


Everitt, J.H., D.L. Drawe, and R.I. Lonard. 1999. Field guide to the broad leaved herbaceous plants of South Texas used by livestock and wildlife . Texas Tech University Press. Lubbock.
Yarrow, G.K., and D.T. Yarrow. 1999. Managing wildlife . Sweet Water Press. Birmingham.
Gee, K.L., M.D. Porter, S. Demarais, F.C. Bryant, and G.V. Vreede. 1994. White-tailed deer: Their foods and management in the Cross Timbers . Ardmore.

Description of Values

Value Class Food Cover
High Average 25-50% of diet Regular source of cover
Low 5-10% of diet Infrequently used as cover
Minor 2-5% of diet Sparsely used as cover
Moderate Average 10-25% of diet Occasional source of cover

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Following modified from CalPhotos
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http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Trifolium+repens&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Trifolium+repens&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant
&pull 20q v4.662 20091102: Error 500 Can't connect to calphotos.berkeley.edu:443 https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Trifolium+repens&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant

Updated: 2018-04-23 19:27:09 gmt
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